On This Day

12th November

1439 – Plymouth, England, became the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.

1793 – Jean Sylvain Bailly, the first Mayor of Paris, was guillotined.
1893 – The treaty of the Durand Line delineating the border between present day Pakistan and Afghanistan was signed by Sir Mortimer Durand, a British diplomat in British India.

1912 – The frozen bodies of Robert Scott and his men were found on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.

1918 – Austria became a republic.

1927 – Leon Trotsky was expelled from the Soviet Communist Party, leaving Joseph Stalin in undisputed control of the Soviet Union.

1933 – Hugh Gray took the first known photographs alleged to be of the Loch Ness Monster.

1956 – Morocco, Sudan and Tunisia joined the United Nations.

1956 – 111 people, including 103 refugees, were killed by the Israeli army in the Palestinian refugee camp of Rafah, in the midst of the Suez Crisis. The United Nations were unable to determine the circumstances surrounding the deaths.

1968 – Equatorial Guinea joined the United Nations.

1969 –  Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh broke the My Lai massacre story.

1990 – Sir Tim Berners-Lee published a formal proposal for the World Wide Web.

1996 – The deadliest mid-air collision to date took place when a Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 and a Kazakh Ilyushin Il-76 cargo plane collided in mid-air near New Delhi, killing 349 people.

2011 – Silvio Berlusconi tendered his resignation as Prime Minister of Italy, effective November 16, due in large part to the debt crisis.