1173 – Construction of the campanile of the Cathedral of Pisa (now known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa) began. It took two centuries to complete.
1483 – The Sistine Chapel opened in Rome with the celebration of a mass.
1842 – The Webster–Ashburton Treaty was signed, establishing the United States–Canada border east of the Rocky Mountains.
1892 – Thomas Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph.
1902 – Edward VII and Alexandra of Denmark are crowned King and Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1922 – Philip Larkin, English poet and author was born.
1936 – The Summer Olympic Games aka Games of the XI Olympiad were held in Berlin. Jesse Owens won his fourth gold medal at the games becoming the first American to win four medals in one Olympiad.
1942 – Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi was arrested in Bombay by British forces, launching the Quit India Movement.
1945 – World War II: Nagasaki, Japan was devastated when an atomic bomb, Fat Man, was dropped by the United States B-29 Bockscar. 39,000 people are killed outright.
1965 – Singapore was expelled from Malaysia, becoming the only country to date to gain independence unwillingly.