1984 - The world's worst industrial disaster took place when 42 tonnes of toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas leaked from the Union Carbide subsidiary pesticide plant in the city of Bhopal, India. More than 500,000 people were exposed to the toxic gases, with the symptoms bearing all the hallmarks of cyanide poisoning.
The first official death toll was 2,259. A more probable figure is that 8,000 people died within two weeks. It is estimated that around 20,000 people have died from gas-related diseases since the disaster.
Mathematicians from the University of Limmerick are working out a mathematical formula for the perfect cup of coffee.
(They have found that size does matter, and flavour is linked to the coffee grain's surface are. The method of extraction describes the movement of the coffee from its solid form as a bean into its liquid form when it dissolves into hot water, and they have found that small grains give a more bitter taste, whilst large grains result in a weak brew.
Earlier in 2016 some chemists got together to create this video:-
Reactions goes on a quest for better coffee through chemistry.
1926 - The American Olympic athlete, Gertrude Ederle, became the first woman to swim across the English Channel. It took her 14 hours, 39 minutes to swim the 56 kilometers from France to England. She held the record for 35 years.
1945 - The world's first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. An estimated 140,000 people were killed by the bomb and its aftermath.
According to a report by Sainsbury's bank, daughters are more expensive than sons.
(This isn't due to any costs of getting married, dowries etc., it's purely on the basis of raising the children.
Girls cost thousands of pounds more than boys to bring up 0 to 5 boys cost £5,475 a year, and girls £5,7676 to 13 boys cost £6,414 a year, and girls £7,79414 to 18 boys cost £7,172 a year, and girls £7,747
The biggest issue is that clothing costs more for girls, so I would say from the ages 0 to 13, it's the parent's fault. Pink stuff probably costs more than blue stuff.)
1969 – In Canada, the Official Languages Act was adopted making the French language equal to the English language throughout the Federal government.
1978 – The Solomon Islands became independent from the United Kingdom.
2005 - Four bombs were set off on the London public transport system during the morning rush hour, killing 56 people, and injuring 700. It was the deadliest single act of terrorism in the UK since the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988, which killed 270 people. A group called "Al Qaeda in Europe" claimed responsibility for the attacks.
2006 – The Western Black Rhinoceros, the rarest of the Black Rhino subspecies, was declared extinct by the World Conservation Union, due to poaching.
The Chilcot report into the Iraq war cost £10,375,000.00. It consists of 12-volumes containing 2.6 million words.
(The inquiry was launched on 30 July 2009, to cover the period of 2001 to the end of July 2009. Over 100 witnesses were called.
The findings of the report were that British military action was not the last resort, that policy on Iraq was made on the basis of flawed intelligence that was never challenged, and that the overall severity of the threat posed by Iraq, particularly the existence of weapons of mass destruction, was grossly overstated, and presented with a certainty that was not justified.)
The whole report can be downloaded here: http://www.iraqinquiry.org.uk/
1844 – The last nesting pair of Great Auks was killed. They were found incubating an egg off Iceland. Jón Brandsson and Sigurður Ísleifsson strangled the adults and Ketill Ketilsson smashed the egg with his boot.
1884 – The Dow Jones published its 1st stock average.
1928 - The first colour television transmission took place in London.
1969 - Former Rolling Stones guitarist, Brian Jones (born Lewis Brian Hopkin-Jones) drowned.
1971 - Jim Morrison, the lead singer of American rock group The Doors, was found dead in a bathtub in Paris of heart failure. He was only 27.
1976 - Israeli commandos rescued 103 hostages held by Arab militants at Entebbe airport, Uganda.
1987 - Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie was sentenced to life imprisonment at a court in Lyon.
1988 - Missiles fired from an American naval warship, the USS Vincennes, brought down an Iranian passenger jet in the Persian Gulf, killing all 290 people aboard.
1996 – The Stone of Scone was returned to Scotland.
The nation remembers those who died and were injured at the Somme during the First World War.
At 7:28 am The Lochnagar mine, which had been placed under the German lines, was detonated, creating the largest man-made mine crater created in the First World War. At 7:30am a whilstle was blown and hundreds of soldiers "went over the top" in what is now called Zero Hour, only to be mown down by machine gun fire. No one seems to know how many German soldiers were killed in the explosion.
By the end of the day thousands had died, and the Battle of the Somme continued for 141 days, at the end of which an estimated million soldiers were killed and wounded. The bodies of 72,000 men were never recovered.
Christina Estrada, a former model, is claiming nearly £200million in her divorce from Sheikh Walid Juffali, a Saudi multi-billionaire.
(In a divorce settlement case that has more twists and turns than a game of snakes and ladders, he actually tried to prevent her claim in the British courts on the grounds that he was entitled to legal immunity because of his diplomatic status as permanent representative to the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) of the Caribbean island of St Lucia, she is demanding such a huge sum as it "reflects the standard of living she enjoyed during her marriage to the Sheikh".
She is trying to justify her rather large claim for the following expenses:-
£55million for a new London home with annual
staff costs of £335,558, which would cover a live-in butler,
housekeeper, chauffeur, a nanny for the London home together with two
cleaners, a chef, a reserve nanny and an office manager. £4.4million for a second house at Henley.
£2.1million annual tra…
An advert for Nurofen painkillers, has been banned in the UK for falsely claiming it targets specific types of pain.
(The Advertising Standards Authority received complaints about TV adverts that suggested that Nurofen could target back pain. In one ad which showed a woman experiencing back pain, a voiceover said: “Just a single dose of Nurofen Joint and Back provides you with constant targeted pain relief for up to eight hours.”
In an interesting use of language RB UK Commercial, which owns the Nurofen brand, said the advert did not state or imply specific pain could be targeted and that it was “disappointed” with the ruling. A spokesperson said: “Nurofen pain-specific products were introduced to provide easy navigation of pain-relief options for consumers experiencing a specific type of pain." Please note, they didn't use the word "targeted pain relief".
1922 - 18 year old Ralph Samuelson slapped a pair of sticks on his feet, grabbed hold of a rope behind a boat, and became the world's first waterskier. (His brother Ben operated the powerboat that pulled Ralph along. He broke the original skis in one landing, but his slightly-modified second pair still can be seen at the Water Ski Hall of Fame museum in Winter Haven, Florida.)
1960 - 45 men were killed in a gas explosion at a coal mine in Monmouthshire, Wales.
2004 - The United States handed power back to the Iraqi people at a low-key ceremony in Baghdad.
According to a Freedom of Information request from the BBC, since the introduction of UK legislation in October 2015 that bans anyone from smoking in cars with children present, no fines have been issued.
(Of course this does not mean that people have suddenly stopped blowing smoke into their children's lungs, it simply means this is yet another unenforceable piece of legislation.)
Brits are spending more more than £900 million a year simply keeping our smartphones and tablets charged. (If that's not bad enough, we waste £134 million a year by overcharging them: According to research commissioned by insurance provider Row.co.uk, part of the problem is overcharging which happens when users plug in their devices overnight.
A massive nine in ten owners keep gadgets on permanent charge, often unaware that overcharging batteries can reduce their lifespan, and under certain conditions lithium-ion batteries can pose a safety hazard. The figures suggest that around 85,000 tonnes of CO2 could be saved if people disconnected as soon as charging was complete.)
Average charging times:- Mobile Phone - 2 hours Laptop, with Express Charge - 2 hours Hand-held vacuum cleaner - 3.5 hours Mp3 player - 4 hours Digital Camera - 2 hours
According to the Professor Nigel Hunt at the Royal College of Surgeons, “cake culture” in the UK workplace is fuelling the obesity epidemic and contributing to poor dental health.
(As a healthy alternative they are suggesting that workers should bring fruit platters into the office instead of doughnuts, cookies and biscuits. He said, “Cake culture poses difficulties for those who are trying their hardest to lose weight or become healthier - how many of us have begun such diets only to cave in to the temptation of the doughnuts, cookies or the triple chocolate biscuits?”
I agree in principal, but I wouldn't want to be the one to bring a box of apples to work on my birthday, I don't want to be known as Lynney no friends.)
1973 – A fire at a house in Hull, England, which killed a six year
old boy was passed off as an accident; it later emerged that it was the
first of 26 deaths by fire caused over the next seven years by arsonist
1983 - Pope John Paul II privately met banned union leader Lech Walesa, the founder of Solidarity, on a visit to Poland.
- An auction of John Lennon's possessions raised $430,000, including
$19,000 for a guitar used while Lennon was with the Beatles.
1985 – A terrorist bomb brought a Boeing 747 down off the coast of Ireland, killing all 329 people on board.
– James Hansen testified to the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and
Natural Resources that it was 99% probable that global warming had
1991 – Moldova declared independence.
1992 - New York crime boss John Gotti (the Teflon Don) was sentenced to life imprisonment with no chance of parole.
1969 – The Cuyahoga River, in Northeast Ohio in the United States, caught fire, which triggered a crack-down on pollution in the river. Time magazine described the Cuyahoga as the river that "oozes rather than flows" and in which a person "does not drown but decays."
1969 – Judy Garland died.
1978 – Charon, a satellite of the dwarf planet Pluto, was discovered.
1981 - Mark Chapman changed his plea to guilty and admitted he murdered John Lennon in December 1980.
1984 – Virgin Atlantic Airways launched. Its first flight was from London Heathrow Airport.
1269 – King Louis IX of France ordered all Jews found in public without an identifying yellow badge to be fined ten livres of silver.
1306 – The Earl of Pembroke's army defeated Bruce's Scottish army at the Battle of Methven.
1865 – Over two years after the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves in Galveston, Texas, United States, were finally informed of their freedom. The anniversary is still officially celebrated in Texas and 13 other contiguous states as Juneteenth.
1961 – Kuwait declared independence from the United Kingdom.
1964 – The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was approved after surviving an 83-day filibuster in the United States Senate.
1970 - Edward Heath became prime minister after a surprise victory for the Conservatives in the general election.
1975 - An inquest jury decided Lord Lucan murdered the 29-year-old nanny of his three young children.
1978 – Garfield comic strip was first published. It has grown to over $1 billion in revenue, and is distributed to ove…
1429 – French forces under the leadership of Joan of Arc defeated the main English army under Sir John Fastolf at the Battle of Patay. This turned the tide of the Hundred Years' War.
1767 – Samuel Wallis, an English sea captain, sighted Tahiti and is considered the first European to reach the island.
1812 - The United States declared war on on the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1815 – The Battle of Waterloo led to Napoleon Bonaparte abdicating the throne of France for the second and final time.
1858 – Charles Darwin received a paper from Alfred Russel Wallace that included nearly identical conclusions about evolution as Darwin's own. This prompted Darwin to publish his theory.
1873 – Susan B. Anthony was fined $100 for attempting to vote in the 1872 US presidential election. (The 19th Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution, which prohibits each of the states and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote beca…
The term flip-flop is an onomatopoeiac word based on the sound made by the sandals when walking in them.
(Flip flops are no heel strap sandals, and although this style of sandal has been worn for centuries, the modern day flip flops have been worn in America and Britain since the 1970s. Sometimes the word is written flip-flops, and flipflops.
They are called thongs in Australia, jandals (originally a trademarked name derived from "Japanese sandals") in New Zealand, slops in South Africa, and tsinelas in the Philippines.)
1215 – King John of England put his seal to the Magna Carta.
1667 – The first human blood transfusion was administered by Dr. Jean-Baptiste Denys.
1752 – Benjamin Franklin proved that lightning is electricity.
1785 – Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier, co-pilot of the first-ever manned flight (1783), and his companion, Pierre Romain, became the first-ever casualties of an air crash when their hot air balloon exploded during an attempt to cross the English Channel.
1844 – Charles Goodyear received a patent for vulcanization, a process to strengthen rubber.
1877 – Henry Ossian Flipper became the first African American cadet to graduate from the United States Military Academy.
1909 – Representatives from England, Australia and South Africa met at Lord's and formed the ICC (Imperial Cricket Conference).
1911 – Tabulating Computing Recording Corporation (IBM) was incorporated.
1919 – John Alcock and Arthur Brown complete the first nonstop transatlantic flight at Clifden, County…
1381 – Richard II met leaders of the Peasants' Revolt on Blackheath.
1381 - The Tower of London was stormed by rebels who entered without resistance.
1645 – Battle of Naseby – 12,000 Royalist forces were beaten by 15,000 Parliamentarian soldiers.
1648 – Margaret Jones was hanged in Boston for witchcraft.
1777 – The Stars and Stripes was adopted by Congress as the Flag of the United States.
1789 – Bounty mutiny survivors including Captain William Bligh and 18 others reached Timor after a nearly 7,400 km (4,000-mile) journey in an open boat.
1789 – Whisky distilled from corn was first produced by American clergyman the Rev Elijah Craig. He called it Bourbon because he lived in Bourbon County, Kentucky.
1822 – Charles Babbage proposed a difference engine in a paper to the Royal Astronomical Society entitled "Note on the application of machinery to the computation of astronomical and mathematical tables".
1839 – The village of Henley, on the River Thames in Oxford…
1509 – Henry VIII of England married Catherine of Aragon.
1692 - Salem Village. Bridget Bishop, the first colonist tried in the Salem witch trials, was hanged after being found guilty of the practice of witchcraft. (In 1956 the Massachusetts General Court passed an act exonerating her. Well that's alright then.)
1776 - Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston were appointed to the Committee of Five to draft the American declaration of independence.
1788 – Russian explorer Gerasim Izmailov reached Alaska.
1955 – Eighty-three people were killed and at least 100 injured after an Austin-Healey and a Mercedes-Benz collided at the 24 Hours of Le Mans.
1959 - The Hovercraft, invented by Christopher Cockerell, was officially launched in Southampton.
1962 – Frank Morris, John Anglin and Clarence Anglin became the only prisoners to successfully escape from Alcatraz Island prison.
According to research published in the Nature journal Scientific Reports, fish can remember faces.
(By training archerfish with food pellets as a reward, with a random sequence of 44 faces, scientists were able to teach them to spit at a particular face, with an average accuracy of between 81 and 86 percent. A researcher Cait Newport said "Obviously the first takeaway is that they could do it. They were distinguishing something really complicated. This also shows that the fish have surprisingly good memories. It certainly challenges the whole idea of a fish with a 30-second memory."
Did she really use the word takeaway? I hope she hasn't trained her fish to recognise English.)
According to wine expert Jancis Robinson, author of The 24 Hour Wine Expert, any open bottle of wine – even a red – should be kept in the fridge.
(Seemingly the old adage of serving red wine at "room temperature" was coined before the advent of central heating. Nowadays room temperature tends to be too warm, and we are drinking tepid red wine. According to the experts, refrigerating lighter reds such as beaujolais and pinot noir brings out all their fresh fruit flavours, and full-bodied reds such as cabernet sauvignon, shiraz and malbec benefit from being served cooler (around 17 or 18°C).
Of course, it's unlikely we have any left in the bottle to store, but I'm going to try out this advice this weekend.)
In a survey that examines the good each country does for humanity as well as what it takes away, Britain has ranked 4th.
(The Good Country Index placed Sweden first, Denmark second, and the Netherlands third, but the UK came above France and Germany because Britain does more “good” and less harm than more than 150 countries around the world.
Britain came top for its global contribution to science and technology, thanks to the high number of journal exports, Nobel prizes and international publications it has produced, was ranked 2nd on its global contribution to health and wellbeing, but it scored poorly on international security and peace, coming 64th out of 163 countries.
Simon Anholt, who created the Good Country Index, said that while countries must serve the interests of their people it should not be at the expense of other populations. I think we could apply that to ourselves as individuals too.)
1539 – Hernando De Soto, Spanish explorer and conquistador, claimed Florida for Spain.
1839 – Lin Tse-hsü destroyed 1.2 million kg of opium in Humen, confiscated from British merchants, providing Britain with a Casus belli to open hostilities with China, resulting in the First Opium War.
1924 – Franz Kafka died.
1937 – The Duke of Windsor married Wallis Simpson.
1940 – The Luftwaffe bombed Paris.
1946 - The first (modern) bikini bathing suit was displayed in Paris. Where else?
1956 – British Rail renamed 'Third Class' passenger facilities as 'Second Class'. Second Class facilities had been abolished in 1875, leaving just First Class and Third Class. (That's Britain for you.)
1989 – Troops attempted to force protesters out of Tiananmen Square after seven weeks of occupation.
Maybe the title of this should be boring people, as Ms Scott, an English teacher, has been struck off the teaching register in Scotland for two years after pupils and parents complained about her “boring” lessons.
(She has been removed following a seven-day hearing in Edinburgh where it was reported that she had spent three lessons reading a novel to one class without allowing them to ask questions, set the same essay task - titled "what I did in activities week" - for several different year groups, and shown one class a clip of Jurassic Park before making them copy what she said about characterisation in relation to the film.
Pupils at the school dubbed the lessons the "puni class" due to the disproportionate number of punishment exercises handed out.
To be fair, her lesson plans sound very similar to the ones I had to sit through in English literature.)
!Note - if you are struck off you are removed, from a position of power or responsibility after having done so…
455 – The Vandals entered Rome, and plundered the city for two weeks.
1692 – Bridget Bishop was the first person to go to trial in the Salem witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts.
1793 – Jean-Paul Marat recited the names of 29 people to the French National Convention. Almost all of these people were guillotined, followed by 17,000 more over the course of the next year during the Reign of Terror.
1924 – U.S. President Calvin Coolidge signed the Indian Citizenship Act into law, granting citizenship to all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States.
1946 – Italians voted to turn Italy from a monarchy into a Republic. After the referendum the king of Italy Umberto II di Savoia was exiled.
1953 - Queen Elizabeth II was crowned.
1966 - The United States landed a spacecraft on the Moon on its first try (four months behind the Soviet Union).
1985 - English clubs were banned from playing in Europe indefinitely, after the riot at Brussels' Heysel stadi…
Dr Henry Heimlich, the surgeon who gave his name to the simple but dramatic procedure used to rescue people from choking, managed to save someone’s life using the technique himself for the first time since he invented it in 1974. (His technique, called the Heimlich manoeuvre, is used for dislodging food or objects caught in people’s throats, and has been credited with saving thousands of lives around the world: On noticing a fellow resident at the senior assisted living centre where he lives, choking on a piece of meat, Heimlich, a spritely 96-year-old, calmly stepped in.
After her brush with death, the resident in question, 87-year-old Patty Ris, wrote Dr Heimlich a note, saying: "God put me in the seat next to you.")
1503 – James IV of Scotland and Margaret Tudor were married according to a Papal Bull by Pope Alexander VI. A Treaty of Everlasting Peace between Scotland and England signed on that occasion resulted in a peace that lasted ten years.
1533 – The Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer declares the marriage of King Henry VIII of England to Anne Boleyn valid.
1859 – Big Ben was drawn on a carriage pulled by 16 horses from Whitechapel Bell Foundry to the Palace of Westminster.
1934 – The Glyndebourne festival in England was inaugurated.
1937 – Neville Chamberlain became British Prime Minister.
1942 – In retaliation for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, Nazis in Czechoslovakia killed over 1800 people.
1952 – Women in Greece were given the right to vote.
1959: Two monkeys, Abe and Baker, became the first living creatures to survive a space mission. (Able died from the effects of anesthesia given for removal of implanted electrodes.)
According to research carried out on the 2014 census study 48.8% of the population of England and Wales say they don't identify with any religion.
(The number of 'nones' is now above 50 per cent, almost double the figure of 25% recorded in the census just three years earlier. People defining themselves as Christian, including Anglicans, Catholics and other denominations, made up 43.8% of the population.
The Church of England expects congregations to continue to fall for another 30 years as the population ages and younger generations shun faith.
I just think they should put a reply on the census that says, "Mind your own business". )